If we go by the history of our country, agriculture, along with its allied sectors, we can unquestionably say that, it is the largest livelihood provider in India, more so in the vast rural areas. It also plays a major role in contributing a significant figure to the Gross Domestic Product of the country. Sustainable agriculture, in terms of food security, rural employment, and environmentally sustainable technologies such as soil conservation, sustainable natural resource management and bio-diversity protection, are essential for holistic rural development. Indian agriculture and allied activities have witnessed many revolutions since our independence, a green revolution, a white revolution, a yellow revolution, and a blue revolution.

The field of agriculture in India has undergone a massive and rapid transformation in the past two decades. The introduction of the policy of globalisation and liberalistaion has opened up new avenues for agricultural modernisation. This has majorly lead to commercialisation and diversification, but also triggered various technological and institutional innovations owing to investments from corporate entities. India has come a long way from a net importing country. Today India is consistently producing 250 million tonnes of food grains, 100 million tonnes of rice, 90 million tonnes of wheat, 35 million bales of cotton, and more than 18 million tonnes of pulses.

The government has taken several steps to revitalise agriculture sector and improve the conditions of farming community on sustainable basis by increasing investment, improving farm practices, rural infrastructure, delivery of credit, technology and other inputs. Some of the major initiatives taken by the Government of India include:

The Government of India plans to set up two spice parks at Sitarganj and Sahaspur in Uttrakhand with the help of Spice Board of India, said Mr Anand Sharma, Union Minister for Commerce and Industry, Government of India. It has also opened fifth spice park at Mattupetty Sivaganga in Tamil Nadu (TN) for processing turmeric and chilli.

The government has allowed 100 per cent FDI under the automatic route in storage and warehousing including cold storages. 100 per cent FDI is also permitted for development of seeds
The government has launched an initiative to spend US$ 65.1 million to promote 60,000 pulses villages in rain fed areas for increasing crop productivity and strengthening market linkages.

HUNNARBAAZ! Skilled to Win! is a pioneering one hour weekly reality TV show on Doordarshan National that searches for India’s Best Skill Star and Best Innovator.
In the coming episode of the TV show, the discussion and learning would be done on the major concern of the country, Agriculture.

Plastic lumber is a product manufactured from a mixture of recovered materials such as plastic. The product resembles wood and can be used in place of wood, concrete or metal to perform various structural functions. These applications include building recreational equipment, landscaping, and decking. The product however has not yet fully substituted wood in all its functions since it is still under research.

The most common uses of plastic lumber or RPL include: gardening where it is used for making flowerpots, compost bins and fences; agriculture where it is used in making ranch fences, vine stakes, animal stalls and gates; building recreational equipment such as playground equipment, picnic tables, park benches, informational kiosks and decking; among other uses.

There are four major types of Plastic wood, namely; Commingled RPL, High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) RPL, Fibre-Reinforced RPL, and Wood-Filled RPL. The types are highly dependent on the composition of materials. The first type is the Commingled RPL which is made from recycled thermoplastic and consisting majorly of polyethylene. This is so far the cheapest type to manufacture and is mostly used for landscaping and decking.

High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Recycled Plastic Lumber, on other hand, is of higher density than the Commingled variety; hence a bit more costly. It has a distinct advantage in that it is available in a wide range of colours. It is also suitable for landscaping functions and decking.

The third type is manufactured by mixing plastic and glass fibre. The glass fibre is used to reinforce and can be in either continuous or chopped strands. This variety is suited for structural support applications due to the stiffness of the product. A similar product is the Wood-filled Plastic Lumber, which is made by mixing plastic with sawdust. The sawdust fibres reinforce the lumber resulting in great traction and creating a rough texture that is ideal for painting.

Plastic Lumber has several distinct advantages over wood. To begin with, Recycled Plastic Wood is more durable, nontoxic, clean, and nonporous. Other advantages include resistance to moisture and chemicals, maintenance free, splinter free hence no cracking, resistant to graffiti, do not require painting since they are already coloured,, impervious to insects, do not require preservatives or sealants; among others.

Plastic Wood is also very beneficial to the community. Since the lumber is maintenance free, it is a cost effective option for the community and government projects. In addition, it is environmentally friendly since it reduces plastic waste in landfills. Apart from that, Recycled Plastic Timber leads to reduction in treated wood waste.

In comparison to wood, Plastic Lumber is slightly expensive to purchase. However, when the life-cycle costs i. E. Maintenance and replacement that are associated with wood are included, Recycled Plastic Wood is more cost effective. It is also important to note that RPL can be recycled at the end of its useful life; thus making it superior to wood.

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According to the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organisation global food prices have risen by an average of 83% overall in the last decade.

That’s just one statistic from this week’s crop of news reports on climate change, global warming and food production.

Here’s another: global greenhouse gas emissions since the 1850s would have been a third greater without the 1960s Green Revolution, according to the researchers in the US.

Neither of these findings is likely to bring much comfort to the millions of people currently struggling with the effects of this year’s unprecedented rainfall in Pakistan and China, which has displaced at least 20 million people in the two countries, flooded out of their homes, their work and all they own, including crops, seeds and livestock.

Nor will it be of comfort to the Russians, facing their hottest ever summer, with wild fires circling Moscow and risking the loss of at least a third, possibly more, of the country’s wheat crop – due for harvest in September and October but already triggering price speculation on the commodities markets because Russia is the world’s third largest supplier of wheat.

In addition 16 countries have recorded record temperatures this year (2010) and there are severe droughts, leading to starvation in Niger and parts of the Sahel region of Africa.

At the same time US researchers have also found that rice yields are declining in the six main Asian rice producing countries, which they ascribe to global warming and the resulting rise in night-time temperatures. Yields have dropped between 10% and 20% over the last 25 years in some places.

In the face of all this it is hard to tolerate the persistent wrangling between countries in the ongoing discussions ahead of the next meeting in Cancun, Mexico, due in November. Following the disappointing outcome of the last summit in Copenhagen, it’s now being said that the talks have in fact gone backwards.

Even without the mounting evidence of the devastating effects of climate change on weather patterns, and by extension agricultural production, a vast increase in food production is going to be needed to supply the projected global population growth and make some inroads into the scandal that a billion people on the planet are malnourished if not starving.

So what happened in the last “green” revolution and what chance is there of another one?

The 1960s green revolution increased crop yields and cut hunger dramatically in places like South Asia and Latin America by putting more land into cultivation and by using higher yielding varieties of rice, maize and other crops. The result for India, for example, was transformation from a food importer in need of emergency help from time to time to a major food exporter.

Twice as much land as is currently used would have been needed to feed the growing global population at current levels, according to the US researchers. The green revolution used a combination of intensive farming techniques and chemical fertilisers as well as the higher-yield varieties to avoid that.

However, as we now know, there were longer term implications to this method of farming – in the effects of chemical fertilisers on the soil, the environment, insects, plants, animals and sometimes human health.

Lessons have been learned and at least the language has changed. The talk now is all about sustainable farming, natural, healthier foods and a new range of low-chem agricultural products, including biopesticides, biofungicides and yield enhancers, coming from the Biopesticides Researchers that do less harm to the land.

These low-chem products are only part of the mix. There is also the technique of genetic modification although there are many people who are very wary of the unknown pandora’s box this might open.

Changing diet patterns towards eating more meat as the BRIC countries become more prosperous and develop a larger, urban middle class are another factor. Meat production is generally regarded as an inefficient use of land and water, so persuading people to eat less of it, while it would have an effect on the emission of greenhouse gases, might be a tall order in some parts of the world.

Plainly there’s a limited amount of land available for agricultural expansion, not to mention the production of biofuels. Increasingly extreme weather won’t help.

In addition therefore reaching global agreement on efforts to curb emissions in a way that is accepted as fair by all countries is another key to achieving some kind of sense on global warming, climate change and food production. It’s to be hoped that the pessimistic predictions for Mexico in November prove not to be true, since all our futures depend on it.

Copyright (c) 2010 Alison Withers

Agriculture is a significant part of Indian economy. All the raw materials to the industries is provided by agriculture. India is also an exporter of agricultural products. This makes agriculture a good career choice. There are various job opportunities in this sector as also agriculture nowadays is not a matter of the conventional and traditional agriculture methods, but has transformed into more scientific and hi-tech field.

The various jobs in agriculture include:

Agriculture business
Service in agriculture
Farming
Banking
Consultation
Agricultural Engineering
Agro industry
Agricultural education

Agriculture management This job includes the task of managing farms, timber tracts, supervision of the routine activities on these sites and monitoring the laborers as well as business.

Farming Farming usually involves growing crops on an owned land . You can either buy a land and start farming or you can even take somebody else farm .

Laborers A job usually for the uneducated class, the job of laborers involves working on the field and doing activities like plant seeds, prepare soil, managing the spraying of fertilizers, sowing of seeds as well as harvesting. This job involves a lot of physical work.

Agricultural Scientists This job involves research in the field of improvisation of agriculture, of developing ways to improvise on the agricultural output. It also involves research in the field of increasing resistance of plants to pests .

Forest Officers This job involves on site stay and involves taking care of the forest, the habitat and vital resources of the forest, resource management and protection of the wild , prevention of illegal activities, etc.

Horticulturist This profession involves cross breeding of various plants and vegetables for improved quality and nutrients.

Food Scientist Growing healthier crops and make the whole process a less hassle free and simpler one is what a food scientist does.

There are many more job opportunities in the agriculture sector as it is an ever shining industry. There is a good career scope also in this sector. Mainly in the field of business of farming, food technology , horticulture and biotechnology are the fields which are shining at present and offer immense job opportunities.

So if you are planning to join the agricultural sector, you need not worry about the opportunities in this sector. The remuneration offered by this industry is also above average and better the skills and the qualification better the salary or the returns. These fields are offering a lot of jobs and getting a job should never be a problems looking to the current scenario. So, join the agriculture sector for a green opportunities and lot of green also.